Yabusame – môn võ thuật truyền thống của Nhật Bản

Yabusame là môn võ thuật truyền thống của Nhật Bản. Người tham gia sẽ ngồi trên lưng ngựa và bắn Kaburaya (鏑矢) tới đích trong khi ngựa đang chạy.

Yabusame là gì?

Yabusame tiếng Nhật là 流鏑馬, nghĩa là cưỡi ngựa bắn cung.

夏日の京都で馬が疾駆 下鴨神社で流鏑馬神事 | 毎日新聞

Yabusame là môn võ thuật truyền thống của Nhật Bản. Người tham gia sẽ ngồi trên lưng ngựa và bắn Kaburaya (鏑矢) tới đích trong khi ngựa đang chạy. Kaburaya là mũi tên đặc biệt có gắn thêm kabura (chuông nhỏ bằng gỗ) ngay sau đầu tên. Khi mũi tên bay sẽ tạo ra âm thanh nên được sử dụng như tín hiệu trên chiến trường để thông báo trận chiến.

Từ thời cổ đại cho đến khi kết thúc xã hội samurai, nó đã được phổ biến như hoạt động yêu thích của các samurai. Yabusame bắt đầu từ võ thuật mang tính thực chiến, sau đó dần được phát triển thành lễ nghi và nghi thức Thần đạo.

Địa điểm tổ chức

Mặc dù Yabusame phụ thuộc vào trường phái và khu vực nhưng nhìn chung nơi diễn ra Yabusame đều cố định về hình thức và hành động.

Yabusame

Tổng cộng có 3 phần. Phía bên tay trái theo hướng di chuyển của người cưỡi ngựa được gọi là Ite (射手). Trường đua dài bắt đầu từ khi ngựa xuất phát có khoảng cách là 220m. Khoảng cách từ vị trí giương cung bắn đến đích là 5m.

Trang phục

Trang phục sử dụng trong Yabusame dựa trên trang phục ngày xưa các samurai hay đi săn. Trên đầu đội Naeeboshi (萎烏帽子), đeo Ayaigasa (綾藺笠). Quần áo gồm Suikan (trang phục từ thời Heian) hoặc Hitatare. Phía trên đeo găng ở cánh tay trái, khoác áo da hươu bao phủ phần chân từ thắt lưng trở xuống. Cuối cùng đeo kiếm bên hông làm vũ khí, thêm bao đựng mũi tên. Trên tay cầm cung tên.

Yabusame hiện đại

Ngày nay Yabusame được tổ chức dưới nhiều hình thức khác nhau theo nghi lễ và sự kiện Thần đạo ở các nơi. Đại diện tiêu biểu là Cưỡi ngựa bắn cung trong thể thao. Việc bảo tồn các giống ngựa Nhật Bản cũng được coi trọng để tạo nên phả hệ độc nhất. Các lớp học dành cho người mới bắt đầu và phụ nữ để trải nghiệm Yabusame được tổ chức ở câu lạc bộ và trải ngựa khắp nơi.

Lễ hội đặc biệt có Yabusame

Yabusame

  • Tỉnh Aomori – công viên trung tâm thành phố Towada: tại đây có sự kiện thể thao như Sakura Yabusame, World Yabusame Championship chỉ dành cho phụ nữ.
  • Tokyo – Meijijingu: Yabusame là một phần của lễ hội mùa thu, tổ chức vào ngày sinh nhật của Thiên Hoàng Minh Trị.
  • Tỉnh Mie – đền Tado: lễ hội Tado được tổ chức hàng năm với nghi lễ thần đạo tại đền Tado thành phố Kuwana.
  • Kyoto – Đền Shimogamo: hàng năm Yabusame được tổ chức như một nghi lễ trước lễ hội Aoi – 1 trong 3 lễ hội lớn của Kyoto.

 

 

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